For unique gifts, head to Frangipani.
If you happen to hit the arts district at night, be sure to check out Brick and Wood Tavern for some great hip-hop music, a life-size game of Jenga, and a whiskey sour. The epicenter of Cuban culture in Miami resides right here in Little Havana. With a rich history behind it, Little Havana, after waves of Cuban refugees settled into the neighborhood, became and still remains a top political and cultural spot in the city.
Little Havana is also home to some of the best Cuban food around. Walk along Miracle Mile to have lunch at one of the many great restaurants like Red Koi or Tarpon Bend , stop for a drink at one of the bars, and have a look at some of the cute little boutiques for treasures to take home. Coral Gables is also home to the beautiful and haunted! Peacock Park is a wonderful place to go for a walk during the day, later evening, or even at night, and it connects to the boardwalk, right on the marina.
The Grove makes for a relaxed night out, and if you come here during the day, you can also hit some unique specialty stores and boutiques. Ah, Miami Beach , the part of the city that everyone dreams of visiting when they first think of Miami. By the s and s the West Grove experienced more upheaval as it fell under the control of drug dealers that brought various illegal substances to the area. Many long-term residents left Coconut Grove during these times Plasencia , pp. There are numerous reports of locals feeling that many of the local trees were cut down to fight drug crime.
They were said to have been removed to limit hiding places for drugs and dealers on the local streets. The East end of Grand Avenue, which had been owned since the s by Patriarch Max Blumenthal, was sold to a local church who then sold it on to developers with high density plans to develop the whole street Staletovich ; Nielsen These plans were ultimately undermined by the global banking and real estate crash.
Dozens of other community plans—including one for a Bahamian Promenade also on Grand Avenue please see image below —for revitalizing the neighbourhood were announced, but very few were completed Plasencia , p. These visions were made somewhat obsolete by the Miami21 new planning regime for the whole city, while they also suffered from a lack of funding Staletovich In so doing, they have also maintained the residential character and single family density of those back streets Plasencia , p. The local community has had one recent success with the construction of Gibson Plaza on Grand Avenue.
This is in marked contrast to the numerous luxury high rise developments that continue to be built in the East Grove, consisting mainly of high rise hotels, apartment and office blocks Plasencia , p. The above photograph of a 6 city block offering in see Figure 19 above shows the extent of the transition which is at hand on Grand Avenue LoopNet , Kellergis The combination of these lots made available for large scale development, may well further erode the proportion of trees and vegetation in the area.
In view of this possibility, it is useful to assess the stock of current greenery that exists in the area. Nevertheless, a current analysis showed an urbanized km2 area of the County to still have Methodology An estimate of canopy cover in both Coconut Grove and the West Grove13 has been made by calculating the respective vegetation indices NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index] of both areas. A percentage of census blocks with a NDVI of higher that 0. The topography is fundamentally flat and the elevation of the study area is 13ft 4m. Wikipedia The area has a tropic monsoon climate with temperatures ranging between degrees Fahrenheit Wikipedia.
Green plant leaves typically have low reflectance in the visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum due to strong absorption by leaf mesophyll. Meanwhile, in the near infrared region, leaves exhibit high reflectance due to extensive scattering effects in these wavelengths Tucker and Sellers, ; Tucker, ; Knipling, The index mostly produces brighter values for pixels that contain more vegetation. Water bodies were clipped from the image as much as possible, as sun reflecting from water may also produce high NDVI values and distort results.
This may be the result of higher density development zoning in these areas. Surprisingly, some of the blocks that include park spaces along the coast have a low NDVI classification. An indicative statistical comparison between the NDVI of the West Grove and the remainder of the Grove was also undertaken and the results are listed below. Notably, the Non West Grove shows Non West Grove 0. What is notable is the marked difference between the South Grove and the West Grove. The distinction between the West Grove and the area to its North and East is far less clear cut.
The multispectral image was atmospherically, radiometrically and geometrically corrected.
Images of America: Coconut Grove tells their story, from the native people who called it home to the Bahamians and sophisticated settlers who. Along the Miami River (Images of America) [Paul S. George] on posati.cf * FREE* shipping on Miami: The Magic City (Images of America) by Seth H. Bramson Paperback $ Only 7 left in stock . Coconut Grove (Images of America).
This was a level 3A image: meaning that radiometric correction, geometric correction and orthorectification have been processed for the image. The NDVI results were expressed through a framework of census blocks which are not natural and thus arbitrary.
Results may have been distorted. Whilst water areas were removed from the analysis which generally register lower NDVI values, below 0. There are not many swimming pools in the West Grove. Using the mean as a measure of central tendency is more influenced by the existence of outliers. For example, if a census block is predominantly vegetated, but also contains an area that is highly built non-vegetated , those non-vegetated pixels can skew the output of the mean NDVI for that particular block.
In an attempt to reduce these data and methodological limitations, two different measures of NDVI at the block level were used: mean NDVI, and the percentage of total block area that registered NDVI pixel values of at least 0. The rationale for this threshold is twofold: firstly, as well-documented in the literature LandscapeToolbox , only pixels registering NDVI values of greater than 0.
Secondly, in light of the minimum threshold NDVI value for vegetation 0. Grass surfaces, for instance, will register NDVI values above 0. It should also be noted that even at the very high resolution of this image, some smaller younger trees may still have dropped out of the analysis. The image was acquired during the leaf-on season dated 11 May but NDVI values can still be influenced by other external factors e.
Therefore analysis of a single image may not be so reliable.
Longer term averages of vegetation data help remove errors caused by clouds, but also unfortunately remove detail helpful when studying small areas Weler Though older groups of trees remained, it is clear that the landscape had by then been altered to make way for roads and houses. The speculative land boom had by then collapsed and further development stalled. The picture also shows the devastation of the hurricane.
Unfortunately, it was not possible to improve the quality of this section of the image to detail the loss of original tree cover. Harold R. After , further housing development had happened mainly in the South and West of the area.
Racial segregation and other urban planning issues, in combination with the effects of the economic depression, impacted the development elsewhere in the area. More trees are also evident around West Grove houses. Source: U. The recovery of canopy coverage is far more notable to the South of the West Grove area.
Meanwhile housing density seems to have been reduced. This is likely due to many lots having been cleared now green grass as a function of land speculation and other development initiatives. Lot-line housing developments i. Furthermore, the poor quality of some of these aerial photos due to varying shadows, atmospheric conditions, variations in altitude, lens imperfections and warped plates made precise quantitative assessments through hand digitization impossible. A determination of comparative accuracies between automated remoted sensed and hand-drawn digitized methods to assess canopy cover would be a necessary prerequisite before accepting any quantitative assessment of the older aerial imagery.
Moreover, further research on both historical and current block census data in Coconut Grove would provide greater insight into how demographic characteristics such as land tenure, income and education could relate to local canopy cover. Finally, useful forecasting and planning data could be obtained by analyzing possible future impact on canopy cover from high density multi-family apartment blocks and lot-line house developments in the West Grove along with projections for long-term sea-level change.
The West Grove was no exception to the march of development brought about by new resources manpower and technology and the commoditisation of land. Homesteading drives land speculation annexed into Miami to population growth and blight impacts with limited coastal development with land and clearance begins in for agriculture and then facilitate the latter's development: High- neighbourhood with paths. Area tree canopy grants with clearance for Half a dozen residential explosive growth.
A density 'concrete high crime and drugs largely untouched by settlements and homes were built in all development. This crash in the land market monsters' are built. Black wealth man. Trees vicinity.
The area's Bay side tree clearances force bringing the of and economic owned by white are said to be cut down remoteness and begin alongside the immigration of non- depression ends the landlords and is in in attempt to fight drug numerous wars led to Peacock Inn and Bahamian Southern speculative run on extremely poor dealer activity. Further the abandonment of Community Trail. Extensive condition. Unsuccessful efforts to develop the these plans. Trees Miami and West Grove. High density estate crash.
West remain cleared. West palm trees restart in with lot occurs. US Plant service Grove tree coverage clearances, aggregation and local botanists recovers in line with of empty lots for denser facilitate the planting of Coconut Grove as a scaled residential new trees in the Grove. Figure Coconut Grove historical overview as it relates to the area's tree canopy cover. Even by the late s the Grove was no longer the hostile, remote and inaccessible land it once was. It is interesting to note that some of the land may have already been cleared as early as the s, but the flora recovered as no subsequent activity took place there.
The Black Grove seems to be no exception to this process. Early maps and photographs show the rough position and extent of the hardwood hammocks and pine rocklands.
The mechanics of the loss of the original tree cover throughout the Grove has been explored in depth in this research. Land-tenure, forest spatial patterns and ecosystem formations can be shaped significantly by neighbourhood design Lowry et al. Exotic and native plantings did occur in the Grove as the area was redeveloped for residential use—no doubt far more densely in the white sections of the Grove. Tree canopy cover in the Black Grove nevertheless recovered after the hurricane damage of late s—but not to the extent seen elsewhere in residential Coconut Grove. There was then a notable decline in canopy cover during the s period of high crime and drug incident rates.
Therefore urban greening, or the lack thereof, is as much a product of complex environmental, socio-economic as well as cultural constraints. Landscape Ecology, Vol. Anderson, J. Government Printing Office. Brevard, M. New York: American Book Company, pp. Buck, J.